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Team IIT: Dashing through the Door





Team IIT: ‘Dashing Through the Doors’

In January 2015, a team* from IIT Delhi created history by teleporting several Lego blocks over a distance of 12 kilometres. These researchers also managed to successfully teleport a chicken named ‘Murgi’ between two of the dorms across the campus. This is a confidential report submitted to DST, GoI.

1. Introduction

Ever since feet have propelled man, he has searched for faster ways to travel. During the life and times of Jules Verne, it was believed that the lower bound to circumnavigate this planet was 80 days.[1] Today the average satellite performs this heroic act in less than an hour.

Before the eighteenth century, long-distance communication and transportation were synonymous activities – a letter moved as fast as the postman carrying it. However, with the advent of the electric telegraph and the IT revolution that followed, communication became much faster than its synonymic counterpart.

Today’s growing population demands maximum displacement in minimum time. As more and more pressure is put on existing channels of transportation, both the time and resources spent on travelling is rising. The logical way ahead is to conceptualise means of travel that retain the status quo between transport and communication. The 1993 paper on Quantum Teleportation by Bennett et.al. allows one to propose a mechanism in which the motion of a particle is replaced by communicating all its characteristics.[2]

2. Issues with Current Transport

Due to congestion and demand on preexisting modes of transport, the response time of services using these channels is steadily rising. The newspapers around the world report tragedies that could have been prevented if only help – ambulances, law enforcement, pizza – could have gotten there faster.

As the fuel production stagnates and declines, flights become too expensive to serve as a viable means of transportation for those at the bottom of the pyramid, thus eliminating the fastest and longest-range transportation available. Also, one of the most disquieting problems outside our four walls is mobile source air pollution. Mobile source air pollution includes any air pollution emitted by motor vehicles, airplanes, locomotives, and other engines and equipment that can be moved from one location to another. Many of these pollutants contribute to environmental degradation and have negative effects on human health.


Photo courtesy Road Traffic Safety Management System

(www.sirim-qas.com)

The tourism industry too will suffer greatly, and will possibly decline to extinction, as fewer people would spend greater sums of money to enjoying the declining joys of tourism.

3. Review of Previously Proposed Solutions

NASA has suggested the PAV model. A personal air vehicle or PAV, also personal aerial vehicle, is an emergent aviation market that would provide on-demand aviation services. PAV uses alternative fuels to power its flight and has a flight range of 1300 kilometres. The PAV definition outline states that a PAV could be flown by “anybody with a driver’s license”.[3]A PAV does not solve accidents arising from human error – and a plane crash is far more disastrous compared to the average road accident. Also a PAV needs an airport to both take off and land and therefore does not address the last-mile-connectivity issues.

A space elevator is a proposed type of space transportation system, which was first published in 1895 by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky.[4]Its main component is a ribbon-like cable (also called a tether) anchored to the surface and extending into space. It is designed to permit vehicle transport along the cable from a planetary surface, such as the Earth's, directly into space or orbit, without the use of large rockets. An Earth-based space elevator would consist of a cable with one end attached to the surface near the equator and the other end in space beyond geostationary orbit (35,800 km altitude). The competing forces of gravity, which is stronger at the lower end, and the outward/upward centrifugal force, which is stronger at the upper end, would result in the cable being held up, under tension, and stationary over a single position on Earth. [5] Like the proverbial beanstalk, this wonder of the world is vulnerable to shear forces, for example a meteor shower, which may cause the space elevator to snap.


Photo courtesy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_elevator [This photo is licensed under the Creative Commons]

4. Proposed Solution

In classical information theory, a bit is the smallest unit of information. A bit can hold either 0 or 1, true or false. In quantum information theory, the quantum analogue of a bit is called a “qubit”. Unlike a qubit which is either 0 or 1, a qubit can exist in a superposition of both states at the same time, a property which is a fundamental difference between the classical and quantum information theory. [6]

The relations between qubits and classical bits are expressed in the four Bennett’s Laws. [7] The fourth of these laws allows for quantum teleportation. It proves a mechanism of moving a qubit from one location to another without having to physically transport the underlying transport that the qubit is attached to. [8] Much like the invention of the telegraph allowed classical bits to be transported at high speeds across continents, quantum teleportation allows qubits to be moved at the same speeds. Since the upper bound on the speed of bits is the speed of light, it follows that qubits can be moved just as fast. This teleportation can occur through empty space and does not need a medium to occur. If the quantum states of all the atoms and molecules in a human body were stored in qubits, then they can be teleported and the human body can be reconstructed at the destination.

Quantum information theory also gives us two theorems of note, No-cloning theorem, i.e. quantum information cannot be copied and the No-Deleting Theorem, i.e. quantum information cannot be destroyed. From these one can deduce that a teleportant (i.e. system being teleported) can always be recovered at a destination. As of 2015, experimenters claim to have achieved quantum teleportation over a distance of 143 km between the two Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife off the Atlantic coast of North Africa. [9]

The proposed solution to current woes of transportation and pollution, aptly christened as “The DashDoor” or simply “DashDoor” is a device that allows a teleportant to instantaneously reach preselected destinations. However the DashDoor places restrictions on the size of the teleportant. From a purely theoretical perspective, the DashDoor is the most efficient method of transportation, requiring the least amount of energy to move a teleportant among all other transport solutions. Travelling under this system will involve a DashCard that authenticates the identity of its teleportant through biometrics.

While it is now possible to travel between any two DashDoors, a security protocol for travelling may place additional restrictions on the choice of destination. The identity of the teleportant may also be recorded. Every DashCard allows its holder to travel only in the jurisdiction of the authority that issued it. For instance, a nation can only issue a DashCard that allows a national to travel freely within the borders of the nation. Permission may be required to travel across boundaries.

In January 2015, a team from IIT Delhi (comprising eight undergraduate students) was able to achieve teleportation of several Lego blocks over a distance of 12 kms. They have also managed to successfully teleport a chicken named ‘Murgi’ between two of the dorms across the campus. Murgi now joins Laika the space dog, and Dolly the sheep, as animals revered in the history of science and engineering.

5. Social and Technological Impacts

The DashDoor will have profound Social and Technological impact, and will fundamentally transform life as we know it. The DashDoor makes human contact between geographically distant locations a trivial issue. One can foresee a decrement in the loss of life and livelihood due to disasters, accidents and crime. Also it helps people at all heights of the fortune pyramid to travel at a low cost, which will erode several social disparities that exist in the globe. When it is just as easy to visit Africa, as it is to visit the corner grocery store, it will undoubtedly truly transform the world into a “global village”.

Because the DashDoor does not burn fossil fuels, it reduces the demand for fuel and has no environmental side effects – one can run the DashDoor on electricity generated from renewable sources.

The DashDoor also promises to revamp the technological landscape. Many new technologies and business models can use the DashDoors to improve their services. This technology will also attract military eyes. This system provides a powerful protocol for military deployment.

It opens up great prospects for space travel in the future. Once a door has been established on a planet/asteroid/moon, travelling to and fro between the celestial bodies will be “a small step for man”.

6. Resources Used

1. Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/

2. Google http://www.google.co.in

7. References

[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Around_the_World_in_Eighty_Days (Accessed March 31, 2015)

[2] C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crépeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, W. K. Wootters, Teleporting an Unknown Quantum State via Dual Classical and Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen Channels, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1895–1899 (1993).

[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personal_air_vehicle (Accessed March 31, 2015)

[4] Hirschfeld, Bob (January 31, 2002). "Space Elevator Gets Lift". TechTV. G4 Media, Inc. “The concept was first described in 1895 by Russian author K. E. Tsiolkovsky in his "Speculations about Earth and Sky and on Vesta."”

[5] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_elevator (Accessed March 31, 2015)

[6] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qubit (Accessed March 31, 2015)

[7] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bennett's_laws (Accessed March 31, 2015)

[8] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_teleportation (Accessed March 31, 2015)

[9] Xiao-song Ma; Thomas Herbst; Thomas Scheidl; Daqing Wang; Sebastian Kropatschek; William Naylor; Alexandra Mech; Bernhard Wittmann; Johannes Kofler; Elena Anisimova; Vadim Makarov; Thomas Jennewein; Rupert Ursin; Anton Zeilinger (17 May 2012). "Quantum teleportation using active feed-forward between two Canary Islands". Retrieved May 24, 2012.

__________________________________________________________________________________

*The Team IITPraveen Kulkarni, Piyush Kumar, Anshul Aggarwal, Arjit Mahajan, Navneet Bihani, Abhishek Goswami, Somya Arora and Abhinav Aggarwal



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